Low Rate Long Term Loans – The Ultimate Guide to Leveraged Debt and Finance Senior Debt Subordinated Debt Bank Debt vs. Corporate Bonds Payable Corporate Bank Financing Bonds Mezzanine Financing Covenant-Lite Loans Syndicated Loan Zero Coupon Bonds Convertible Bonds Convertible Bonds Reverse Debt per Debt Unit (SAB).
Credit analysis Leverage ratio Interest coverage ratio Solvency ratio Debt to equity ratio (D/E) Net debt to accrued interest ratio (TIE) Cash flow available for debt servicing (CFADS) Debt service coverage ratio (DSCR) Debt capacity (Debt CapacityDebtDefault Risk) LGD) Fixed Debt Coverage Ratio (FCCR) Capitalization Ratio Debt to Asset Ratio Total Leverage (DTL) Financial Leverage (DFL) Basis Points (bps) ) Credit Rating
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Real Interest Rate
Bond Yield Coupon Rate Yield to Maturity (ITM) Current Yield Yield to Call (ITC) Yield to Worst (ITV) Callable Yield Curve.
Bank debt is the most common form of corporate debt, which at its most basic level is conceptually the same as any other loan or credit product from a local retail bank (but only on a larger scale, often through a corporate bank). ).
On the other hand, we have corporate bonds, which are usually raised when the maximum amount of senior debt is raised. Or, the borrower might want less restrictive covenants, at the expense of a higher interest rate.
Major examples of bank debt (often called secured loans) include revolving lines of credit (“revolver”) and term loans.
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Distinct commonalities among senior secured loans are lower capital costs (ie cheaper source of funding) and pricing based on a floating rate (ie LIBOR + Spread).
By comparison, the main characteristics of bonds are their fixed (rather than variable) price and longer term. Unlike bank debt, bond yields therefore do not change regardless of the interest rate environment.
So, bank debt can be paid off early with no (or minimal) prepayment fees, while bond lenders charge a premium: A bank lender will be happy to reduce the risk of your investment, but for a bond lender, any early payment reduces yield (i.e. principal repayment and decent yield are not sufficient, principal repayment plus “target” yield must be met).
On the other hand, corporate bonds are issued to institutional investors in public transactions registered with the SEC.
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For the above reasons, a company will often maximize the amount of bank debt that bank lenders would be willing to lend before using riskier and more expensive types of debt instruments.
The biggest benefit of borrowing from banks, as mentioned above, is that the cost of bank debt is lower than other riskier tranches of debt.
With lower risk comes a lower interest rate, hence the idea that bank debt is the cheapest source of financing.
The cost of debt is based on its location in the capital structure and age in terms of priority of payment in the event of liquidation.
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Unlike bonds, bank debt has a floating rate, which means its price is tied to a lending benchmark, usually LIBOR plus a certain spread.
For example, if bank debt is priced at “LIBOR + 400 basis points”, that means the interest rate is the current LIBOR rate plus 4.0%.
In addition, floating rate instruments typically have a LIBOR floor to protect investors from a very low interest rate environment and to ensure that they receive a minimum return that meets their threshold.
Continuing with the above example, if LIBOR’s floor is 2.0%, this means that the interest rate cannot fall below 6.0% (ie downside protection for the debt investor).
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To make sure you not only understand the difference between the cost of variable and fixed debt, but also when each would be preferable from a debt investor’s perspective, answer the following question:
There are several ways in which bank debt can be structured that ultimately work for both the bank and the borrower. Debt structuring by banks can be flexible due to the bilateral nature of the product.
In recent years, the willingness of banks (which are known to be less lenient on debt terms) has been somewhat reduced by the rise of other lenders, such as direct lenders. This is the reason for the rise of Covenant-lite loans.
Also, most bank debt, with the exception of certain term loans or mortgages, will have limited or less severe prepayment penalties (subordinated secured loans may have higher prepayment penalties).
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For example, revolvers (similar in function to credit cards) can be paid off at any time, which reduces interest costs due to a lower outstanding balance.
This offers flexibility to the business if the business’s cash flows are stronger than expected (and also in the reverse scenario).
Bank debt, especially bilateral loans, can also be more structured, with concessions in terms of interest in exchange for stricter terms or vice versa (the smaller the borrower, the less room for negotiation).
A final advantage of bank debt is that it is generally confidential, which can be beneficial to borrowers who want to limit the amount of information that is publicly disclosed.
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Even if the borrower publicly releases loan documents, such as a loan agreement, bankers will want commercial terms, such as price or number of commitments, removed from the filings.
While this may be a pro or con depending on the circumstances, the investor base for bank debt consists of commercial banks, hedge funds/loan funds (often opportunistic investments) and collateralized loan obligations (“CLOs”).
Bank lenders tend to place greater importance on loss protection and risk mitigation, which indirectly leads to more risk-averse borrower decisions.
For larger companies that can access investment banking services and public debt capital markets in developed economies such as the US.operations.
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For larger and more sophisticated companies, it is not uncommon to see most of their debt in unsecured notes/bonds, and most of their outstanding bank debt characterized by fairly loose covenants conforming to the bonds (that is, less stringent terms). ).
The corporate bond investor universe includes hedge funds, bond mutual funds, insurers and HNV investors, with a fixed income nature that matches their investment mandates.
But the ‘yield chase’ aspect of lending is prevalent in the corporate bond market, albeit a minority, not a majority.
The simple answer to that question is that bank debt has a lower interest rate because it is collateralized, meaning that the loan agreements contain language that the bank debt is secured by collateral (ie, the borrower’s property can be encumbered).
Long Term Debt
Should the borrower run into trouble and declare bankruptcy, the bank’s debt with its first or second lien has the highest priority for collection.
Bank debt has a lower interest rate because the lender is at less risk because the debt is backed by collateral, making it the safest claim.
The borrower’s assets are pledged as collateral to obtain favorable financing terms, so that if the borrower is liquidated, bank lenders have a legal claim based on the pledged collateral.
Thus, bank debt is more likely to receive a full recovery in the event of liquidation, while lenders further down the capital structure would be concerned about:
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This typical requirement of having to post collateral for a loan from large lenders puts a burden on the property while limiting the ability to pledge funds to raise capital or raise funds.
Formally, lien is defined as priority and priority of payment to the debt holder in relation to other tranches.
A lien is a legal claim against the assets of the borrower’s company (ie used as collateral) and the right to first pledge those assets in bankruptcy/liquidation scenarios.
Not surprisingly, first lien debt is associated with secured principal debt, such as revolving and term loans from banks. In contrast, second lien debt is riskier and more expensive for borrowers, as it consists of higher-yielding debt instruments.
Debt Covenants: Restrictive Loan Compliance Examples
Another disadvantage of bank debt, in addition to guarantee conditions, is the use of agreements that reduce operational flexibility; although banks have loosened covenants in recent years to better compete among new institutional lenders that offer better pricing terms with fewer restrictions.
Contracts are legally binding obligations undertaken by the borrower to comply with a certain rule at all times or by taking a certain action.
For example, imagine $200 of property being pledged as collateral for a $100 loan, lenders may allow a multiple of leverage (Debt/EBITDA) or have no leverage limits.
An example would be a leverage agreement so that debt / EBITDA does not exceed 3.0k at the end of each fiscal quarter. The company would then have to ensure that this financial threshold is maintained.
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The agreements reduce the possibility of returning capital to shareholders (dividends, share buybacks, opportunistic purchases of subordinated debt) and may represent surplus operations.
For example, there may be barriers to exercise
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